A.2.1 Head phantom
37.5443GPPConformance testingRelease 16TSUniversal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) and Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA)User Equipment (UE) Over The Air (OTA) performance
The Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) is used for radiated performance measurements. The phantom shape is derived from the size and dimensions of the 90-th percentile large adult male reported in an anthropometric study. It has also been adapted to represent the flattened ear of a wireless device user.
For DUT radiated performance measurements in "intended use" position SAM head phantom without a shoulder section will be used.
The shell of the SAM phantom should be made of low-loss material (loss tangent less than 0.05) with low permittivity (less than 5). The thickness has to be 2.0±0.2mm in the areas close to the handset in "intended use" position.
The phantom has to be filled with tissue simulating liquid. It is recommended to use one of the typical SAR tissue simulating liquids and Annex B gives four example recipes of such liquids. It is also recommended to verify the RF properties of the liquid with suitable equipment. The values should be maintained within 15% of the values relative permittivity 40 (±15%) and sigma 1.4 (±15%) at 1900 MHz. If the difference is more than ±15%, it should be taken in to account in the uncertainty budget. Dielectric properties measurement methods can be found e.g. in  .
Alternatively, a dry SAM phantom made of plastic material with corresponding electrical parameters can be used.
NOTE: Measurements for the radiated performance of a UE can be influenced by the hand presence. However, it is very difficult to develop a standardized hand phantom, which could allow pertinent and reproducible measurements. Therefore, a phantom hand is not included in this test procedure.