4 Concepts and overview

28.1053GPPArtificial Intelligence/ Machine Learning (AI/ML) managementManagement and orchestrationRelease 17TS

4.1 Overview

The AI/ML techniques and relevant applications are being increasingly adopted by the wider industries and proved to be successful. These are now being applied to telecommunication industry including mobile networks.

Although AI/ML techniques in general are quite mature nowadays, some of the relevant aspects of the technology are still evolving while new complementary techniques are frequently emerging.

The AI/ML techniques can be generally characterized from different perspectives including the followings:

Learning methods

The learning methods include supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. Each learning method fits one or more specific category of inference (e.g. prediction), and requires specific type of training data. A brief comparison of these learning methods is provided in table 4.1-1.

Table 4.1-1: Comparison of Learning methods

Supervised learning

Semi-supervised learning

Unsupervised learning

Reinforcement learning

Category of inference

Regression (numeric), classification

Regression (numeric), classification


Reward-based behaviour

Type of training data

Labelled data (Note)

Labelled data (Note), and unlabelled data

Unlabelled data

Not pre-defined

NOTE: The labelled data means the input and output parameters are explicitly labelled for each training data example.

– Learning complexity:

– As per the learning complexity, there are Machine Learning (i.e. basic learning) and Deep Learning.

– Learning architecture

– Based on the topology and location where the learning tasks take place, the AI/ML can be categorized to centralized learning, distributed learning and federated learning.

– Learning continuity

– From learning continuity perspective, the AI/ML can be offline learning or continualĀ learning.

Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning (AI/ML) capabilities are used in various domains in 5GS, including management and orchestration (e.g. MDA, see 3GPP TS 28.104 [2]) and 5G networks (e.g. NWDAF, see 3GPP TSĀ 23.288 [3]).

The AI/ML-inference function in the 5GS uses the ML model and/or AI decision entity for inference.

Each AI/ML technique, depending on the adopted specific characteristics as mentioned above, may be suitable for supporting certain type/category of use case(s) in 5GS.

To enable and facilitate the AI/ML capabilities with the suitable AI/ML techniques in 5GS, the ML model and AI/ML inference function need to be managed.

The present document specifies the AI/ML management related capabilities and services, which include the followings:

– ML training.